Teaching of Vocabulary
According to Linda Diamond and Linda Gutlohn (2006) in their article they say that Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl (2005) puts it, “Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not
only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world.”
Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word learning strategies. According to Michael Graves (2000) in his article accessed from internet says that there are four components of an effective vocabulary program:
a. Wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge
b. Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words
c. Instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and
d. Word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning.
In addition, something which is really needed to a teacher to concern is about components of vocabulary instruction. According to Linda Diamond and Linda Gutlohn (2006) in their article add that components of vocabulary instruction are as
a. Intentional vocabulary teaching
b. Specific Word Instruction
a) Selecting Words to Teach
b) Rich and Robust Instruction
c. Word-Learning Strategies
a) Dictionary Use
b) Morphemic Analysis
c) Cognate Awareness
d) Contextual Analysis
According to the National Reading Panel (2000) says that explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective. To develop vocabulary intentionally, students should be explicitly taught both specific words and word-learning strategies. To deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings, specific word instruction should be
robust. Beck et al., (2002) sees vocabulary in rich contexts provided by authentic texts, rather than in isolated vocabulary drills, produces robust vocabulary learning.
National Reading Panel (2000) adds that such instruction often does not begin with a definition, for the ability to give a definition is often the result of knowing what the word means. Rich and robust vocabulary instruction goes beyond definitional
knowledge; it gets students actively engaged in using and thinking about word meanings and in creating relationships among words.
Explicit instruction in word-learning strategies gives students tools for independently determining the meanings of unfamiliar words that have not been explicitly introduced in class. Since students encounter so many unfamiliar words in their reading, any help provided by such strategies can be useful.
Word-learning strategies include dictionary use, morphemic analysis, and contextual analysis. For English language learners whose language shares cognates with English, cognate awareness is also an important strategy. Dictionary use teaches
students about multiple word meanings, as well as the importance of choosing the appropriate definition to fit the particular context. Morphemic analysis is the process of deriving a word’s meaning by analyzing its meaningful parts, or morphemes. Such
word parts include root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Contextual analysis involves inferring the meaning of an unfamiliar word by scrutinizing the text surrounding it.
Instruction in contextual analysis generally involves teaching students to employ both generic and specific types of context clues.
General Concept of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one of the four language components, which are spelling, grammar, phonology and vocabulary. It is an important element that cannot be separated from each other in language learning process, Since English as foreign language becomes an international language. No wonder, it becomes so important for
foreign language learners to learn and master on it that it is a basic element of a language used before learning more about the foreign language. It happens when one who is learning a language has a great mastery on vocabulary, he will succeed in
using the language being studied either in comprehending the meaning of a word in the context of spoken or written language.
To get further understanding about vocabulary, Donna Young (2007) explains that vocabulary is the study of:
a. The meanings of words
Many words have several different meanings each, study the meanings of the words and the part of speech.
b. How the words are used
Study the words in context, apply what you learn by writing sentences with your words.
c. Root words, prefixes, suffixes
Studying these will aid in the study of vocabulary.
This is comparing two pairs of words and choosing the pair that goes together.
Moreover According to Kamil & Hiebert (2007) in their article accessed from internet, they broadly define; vocabulary is knowledge of words and word meanings.
However, vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggests. First, words come in two forms: oral and print. Oral vocabulary includes those words that they recognize and use in listening and speaking. Print vocabulary includes those words
that they recognize and use in reading and writing. Second, word knowledge also comes in two forms, receptive and productive. Receptive vocabulary includes words that they recognize when they hear or see them. Kamil & Hiebert (2007) in their article, they also say that Productive vocabulary includes words that they use when they speak or write. Receptive vocabulary is typically larger than productive vocabulary, and may include many words to which they assign some meaning, even if they do not know their full definitions and connotations or ever use them as they speak and write.
In line with the statement above, I define vocabulary as knowledge of words and word meanings in both oral and print language and in productive and receptive forms. More specifically, vocabulary can be used to refer to the kind of words that students must know to read increasingly demanding skills with comprehension. I begin by looking closely at why developing this kind of vocabulary is important to some skills such as reading, listening, writing, and speaking.
In addition, vocabulary will not only be focused on learning process which leads to improve the students’ mastery of language. Furthermore, Vocabulary will let them know about a culture education by looking at its meaning, where vocabularies
product learned is completely different from Indonesian language.
Vocabulary is the fundamental part of language, which is used in any situation either; it is in the form of spoken or written language. Review at the discussions above, I conclude that the more vocabulary the learners have, the easier for them to
develop their four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and learn English second language generally.
The Principle of Teaching Vocabulary
Recognizing what students need in learning is necessary for a teacher. The process of transferring knowledge will not simply succeed if he can not see his students’ learning absorbing capability toward the material taught and the teaching
portion should be given to.
It is going to be harder for a teacher to teach young learners than adult, it is because of their character. Involving many theories are not a good idea; I believe, this will not maximally work on them and even bore the pupils. That is a reason; the
teaching process must have principles as a reference. To avoid errors in teaching young learner, Cameron (2001: 81) states about several principles of teaching to young learners, they are:
a. The types of words that children find possible to learn with shift.
b. Vocabulary development is not just learning more words but it is also
importance about expanding and deepening word knowledge.
c. Words and words knowledge can be seen as being linked in network of meaning.
d. Basic level words are likely too be more appropriate for children, or when learning vocabulary for new concepts.
e. Children change in how they can learn words.
Looking at the importance of English foreign language to young learners, the teaching principles will very influence the foreign language learners’ understanding toward the material taught. That is the reason; the teaching must be based on an
appropriate strategy referred to the teaching principles, so that the learners, through
a well teaching process and structurally transferred, will gain a good English foundation.
Since vocabulary becomes the topic of discussion, the other principles also stated by James Coady (1997) in his article gained from internet offers a synthesis of research on foreign language vocabulary acquisition. He suggests these implications for pedagogy:
Three main principles appear to underlie effective vocabulary teaching. First, learners should be provided with both definitional and contextual information about words. In the case of foreign language learners, this could be related to their often-felt need for dictionary access. Second, learners should be encouraged to process information about words at a deeper level. Among
foreign language learners this could be reflected in the current emphasis on authentic communicative activities. Finally, learners need multiple exposures to words.