Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Indonesia
Psychology as a science
The development of industrial psychology in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the development of psychology in the western countries especially the United States. Psychology as a science began with the establishment of the laboratory in 1875 by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig Germany. From this starting point begins the experiments using the scientific method which studies psychic phenomena such as the process of recognition, observation, memory, thoughts and so on. This field is called Experimental Psychology.
Psychic symptoms and human behavior are studied by experimental psychology is the basis for the formation of the theory and elements of the rules and principles that apply generally, then performed in the industrial sector. But in this case the results are less reliable because the study in a laboratory experiment using the design. For completeness of these laboratory studies how people conduct field research, so that the two studies complement each other.
Application of general psychology in the industrial sector began in the early 20th century, namely in the field of advertising. Various books published by scholars who discussed the psychology with an aspect of the working world, about the efficiency in the industrial world.
Despite starting the beginning of the 20th century have recognized the possibility of application of general psychology in the company, but the implementation and development of new rapid in the decade beginning 1920.
1. With spearheaded by Frederick Winslow Taylor, began working together undergraduate and graduate psychology experiments of industrial engineering work on the new study, which is seeking conformity and adjustment of physical work environment, work tools and work processes with limited physical abilities and the human psyche as workers. From this starting point arises what is called ergonomics or engineering psychology, which is the study and find ways to work efficiently with adjusting to the ability of sophisticated equipment or human skills to operate the equipment.
2. Research on the effect of the physical aspects of the work environment on the efficiency of workers, conducted in Hawthorne Illinois, the Western Electric Company factory.
3. Beginning in the 1960s the application of psychology in the field of sales, with a consumer behavior research. In connection with these promotional activities initiated through various media to attract consumers’ hearts
Psychology scholars find relationships in the industry, examines the organization as a whole, the structure and climate of various organizations, patterns and communication styles, social structures of formal and informal generated, to determine the effects and consequences of the behavior of labor.
1. psychology experiment
2. perception of closeness law
Based on the findings of experimental psychology, differential psychology flourished or called special psychology, with the character of William Stern, who published his book “Die Differentielle Psichologie” systematically reviewing the areas and methods of special psychology.
Then, from this differential psychology, which later developed the famous psychotechniek with psychometric, who studies and measures the psychic symptoms typical of someone, namely the uniqueness or difference between people.
Measuring instruments used for this purpose, then known as psychological tests.
The first psychological test developed in France by Binet and Simon. This test is then adapted and developed in other countries in the United States known as the Terman-Merrill Intelligence Test. Also known as the Army Alpha tests also are used specifically in the selection of soldiers and Army Beta tests, especially for those who are illiterate.
Further psychological tests developed by intelligence tests, ability tests, personality tests and interest that can be used in the selection, coaching, counseling and rehabilitation. It is also used for the purposes of rotation, career development and increase motivation.
a. differential psychology
The development of psychology in Indonesia starting late 1949 or early 1950 with the use of psychological tests conducted by the Center and the Center for Psychology Psychotechniek Army uses it for the selection and measurement penjurusan based psikometris.
New in 1953, Prof.. Slamet Iman Santoso, founded the Institute of Psychology and Education Center Assistant Psychotechniek. Both institutions are then called into the Vocational Psychology and the Company.
Institute of Education Psychology, developed into the Department of Vocational Psychology Faculty of Medicine UI Year 1960 Vocational Psychology Department and the Company as one of its parts.
It later became part of the Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. This major development was pioneered by the Faculty of Psychology UI and the Faculty of Psychology University of Padjadjaran (1963), followed by the Faculty of Psychology Gadjah Mada University (1965).
The problems encountered in the development of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Indonesia, among others, to adapt the results of that research, develop theories, methodologies and sophisticated tools of the western world to fit the conditions in Indonesia, we face difficulties with lack of or limited funds, staff researcher existing, and readiness to apply psychology in the field of labor, the company’s organization.
Relative to the industrial and organizational psychology in Indonesia today is still an applied science, in the sense that its activities are still in the field of implementation of the examination for the selection and placement, counseling, vocational guidance, career development and implementation of corporate training programs. Was in the field of organizational, human engineering, and consumer behavior research has not been done.
Understanding Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology is the result of the development of general psychology, experimental psychology and special psychology where widely applied in industry took place around the year 1930. Until World War 2 industrial psychology (no additional organizations) method main activities, facts and principles of human psychology as workers. New since World War 2 industrial and organizational psychology became an independent science with its activities.
1. conducting scientific research in relation to the role or human behavior in organizations and the organization itself;
2. develop theories and test the truth;
3. implement new discoveries.
With these activities, industrial and organizational psychology is the overall knowledge of the facts, rules, and principles of human behavior in the field of work.
In connection with these activities the industrial and organizational psychology have attempted to use the interests and benefit of all parties concerned and should try to ensure the application does not place the wrong interpretation.
Industrial and organizational psychology is the science which studies human behavior in her role as workers and consumers either individually or in groups.
The meaning of behavior is any activity undertaken by humans, which can be observed either directly (open behaviors) such as walking, talking, etc. and that can not be observed directly (closed behavior) such as thinking, motivation, etc. other.
In Indonesia alone, industrial psychology and organizational development is still limited to the activities, particularly those applying the findings of psychology in general, industrial and organizational psychology in particular, and in industries and organizations.
As presented in industrial and organizational psychology of human behavior is learned in its role as workers and as consumers.
As workers, learned behavior in the work environment, in carrying out his job duties, the interplay of these relationships, the extent of labor in accordance with the job.
As human labor becomes a member of industry organizations, on the contrary as a user of human consumers (users) of the product and services of industrial organization.
In addition, humans learned individuals and groups. In relation to organizational units, structures, patterns and types of organizations to learn how to conduct an impact on labor, and vice versa.
From the findings that there is data available include:
1. of the theories, rules and principles that can be applied back to the industrial activities and organizations for the benefit of workers, consumers and the organization.
2. collected data that not every successful manager in the implementation of job tasks.
3. The main difference between a successful manager with the less successful managers lies in the speed and accuracy to solve problems and make decisions.
The findings obtained can be used to develop tests, exercises for candidates for the selection of managers and aspiring managers.
Insight Industrial and Organizational Psychology
With the development of psychology into an independent science in which the broader horizons, then the activity does not just apply the methods, facts and principles of human psychology as workers, but also conduct research in an attempt to answer basic questions about the man in the organization and the organization itself . With the spread of knowledge is the name to Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
What is meant by the organization are:
formal organization whose primary goal
– Seek profit from products and services;
– Not for profit, such as educational institutions, hospitals, and so on.
Organization as a System
The system is a system level: it means the system interacts with other systems to form a supra-system. A system consisting of two or more interacting subsystems and each subsystem consists of smaller systems that interact with each other; so on. In the case of organizations (industry), also is a system consisting of subsystems, namely a large work unit (eg division or business).
– A large unit is composed of units of work smaller, for example part,
– Part consists of smaller units such as sexy again and so on, down to the smallest unit of work, namely labor.
Sumber buku berjudul Psikologi Industri Karya Prof. Dr. A.S. Munandar
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