Instructional design process is very complex. It is a systematic planning of instruction in which attention is ed elements (Kempf 1985:11). The four fundamental elements are objectives, materials, method, and evaluation. These elements are interrela sted in different ways, being sequential linear order (Tyler), reciprocal (Taba, Kemp), and sequentially linear and reciprocal (Stenhouse). Three examples of instructional models are given in this module. PPSI model is simple. Dick & Carey’s model is more complex. Kemp’s model is even more complex.

To be comprehensive and exact Kemp has suggested ten elements in the instructional design process in which the learning needs of students is placed in the middle of the oval pattern to show its importance in the instructional planning system.

An instructional design process is beneficial for the school administrator who wants the evidence of successful learning, the designer who wants evidence that a satisfactory program has been designed, the teacher who wants to see learners gain the required competencies, and the learners who want to be successful in their studies.

Before instructional design is made, data should be collected from different sources. In the curriculum change these data can be obtained from the students, the parents, the teachers, and the society as well. Data can be obtained by using questionnaires, interviews, school observation and even tests.

Analysis and Identification of Students’ Needs In Learning English As a Foreign Language

Students have widely different needs because of differences in cultural background, age, and previous educational background. Even if they are homogeneous, they have different learning styles and needs.

Indonesian educational system is centralized so that the same high school curriculum of 1994 has been used throughout Indonesia since its implementation in 1994. Though national survey revealed that both students and parents expect that the teaching of English be directed towards the acquisition of oral communication, the administrators and policy makers in the national system of education determined thet reading skill is the first priority. However, the EFL syllabus being made flexible, allows the EFL teachers to use topics that interest their students as long as they derive from the same theme.

The Priority of Students’ Needs In Learning English As a Foreign Language

In learning English as a Foreign language generaly students try acquiring both receptive and productive skills for communication. Receptive skill includes listening and reading which are passive skills. On the other hand, productive skill includes speaking and writing which are active skills.

Being a centralized system in education the government has decided the students’ needs and its priority. The latest curriculum, the 1994 SMU curriculum has put reading as its primary objectives and listening, speaking and writing as secondary.

Problems in The Teaching and Learning of English As a Foreign Language

There are two factors affecting students to learn English as a foreign language, the linguistic factors and the non-linguistic factors. The linguistic factors among others is the fact that English and Indonesian are two different languages. They have different system of sounds, vocabulary, structure, and culture. Thus Indonesians learning English means learning a different system of sounds, vocabulary, structure, and culture. It really takes a long time. Linguistic factor also includes first language interference. This process is unavoidable especially when adult students learn a foreign language. They can not really master the language fully because of their fossilized errors especially in pronunciation and intonation.

There are at least 8 points that belong to the nonlinguistic factors. They are students, teachers, objective, method, environment, evaluation, and time. The students must be highly motivated and in small groups. The teacher must be a good model with good qualification both in the language and methodology. The objective must be specific, not too much so that it is attainable. There is no best method of teaching English as a foreign language. All methods are good depending on the objective sought. Communicative Approach is not appropriately used when the stated objective is the skill in reading college textbooks written in English. Studying English in the Indonesian setting is hard work.

English is only spoken and used in the classroom. Outside the classroom few people speak English. English exposure in Indonesian setting is quite rare. The Australians and Americans coming here as tourists now speak Indonesian. Evaluation of any instructional program should be based on the objective that we have stated earlier. If the objective ls too ambitious the program is difficult to evaluate and we can not justify precisely whether it is successful or failing.

Finally, the time for learning a foreign language should be enough. Four or five periods of 45 minutes is far from being sufficient. This is made worse when the class is crowded with less motivated students.



The Developmental Stages in The Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language

The acquisition of English as a foreign language is not necessarily the same as that as a second language let alone as a first language. Students start studying English as a foreign language at 12 (Yunior High School), three or four periods of 45 minutes a week. These students have been fluent in their first language so this will interfere the acquisition of English as a foreign language, the so called first language interfere. The first language interference happens in all aspects of language-phonology, morphology, and syntax.

Since English is studied as the first foreign language and it is neither used as an official language nor a medium of instruction at schools the process of acquisition runs very slowly. Learning English should ideally start when you are still very young in a place conducive to learning the language.

Characteristics of Good EFL Students

Students are the central element in the teaching and learning process. The teacher, on the other hand, is a facilitator, assisting them in many ways to obtain the maximum result in learning. For this matter it is important for us to know their positive characteristics. In this way, we, the teachers, can manipulate these positive characteristics for their benefit.

These positive characteristics are among others motivation, personality (creative, active, persevering), good learning strategies, and talented.

Characteristics of Bad EFL Students

There are many characteristics of bad EFL learners, among others are:
First, lack in motivation due to different reasons. The teacher should diagnose the less motivated students to find the reasons of their behaviour before giving treatment.
Second, negative attitude toward English and the people who speak it is another problem.
Third, being introvert is another characteristic of bad EFL students. These students are usually shy, passive, receptive, and permissive – all the qualities that are not conducive to language learning.
Fourth, lack in perseverence is another problem. Students will have no great effort in learning. They give up trying to learn so easily.
The teacher should try to modify all these bad qualities if successful learning is desired.

Learning Strategies in EFL

In the teaching and learning process the students employ various learning strategies while the teacher employs various teaching strategies and learning strategies since the teacher should also learn.

The more learning strategies the students have, the more they learn. So it is the duty of the teacher to teach the students how to learn.

The recent trend is for the teacher to act as a facilitator. In this way the students will be more active and creative.

Learners are grouped into ‘concrete’, ‘analytical’, ‘communicative’, and ‘authority oriented’. The teacher’s duty is to modify the less favourable element into the more favourable so that optimal learning will be made possible.

Teachers should teach the students how to learn and to activate English outside the classroom. They should inform their students all the advantages of knowing English to increase their motivation to learn it.

To learn English outside the classroom can be done in various ways. Listening to BBC, VOA, ABC regularly can increase your listening skill. Watching British or American good films in TV can enrich your vocabulary and structures. In fact, you can learn listening and passive speaking in films. Meeting and talking to foreigners can increase your listening and speaking skills.

Make it your hobby to visit a library and borrow English novels. There is no better way to learn reading skill than to read. Reading English novels will also increase your vocabulary. Select a novel which is not too easy and not too difficult so that you will get much enjoyment in reading.

After reading a novel, make a short note about the novel. You will practice your writing skill. Make it your hobby too to leave a note or memo to a roommate or a friend also in English.

The Characteristics of Good EFL Teachers

In order to be a successful teacher, first of all you must be a good teacher since a bad teacher will never be successful .
First, you should be a good model. Try to acquire English in such a way that you become as a native speaker.
Second, you should know what to teach. Study the present EFL syllabus and instructional materials which are written based on this syllabus.
Third, you should know how to teach English or you should know methodology. You should be good at implementing various teaching skills such as opening the lesson, presenting the materials, giving reinforcement, asking questlons and closing the lesson.
Fourth, your own personality should be taken into consideration. You should have a positive attitude to what you are doing. You should be nice to look at, fair and patient and helpful to your students.
And finally, you must willing to do self evaluation, to get feedback to improve your teaching.

The Effective Classroom Management

In the classroom the teacher has two different tasks, instructional and managerial task is very important since it is a prerequisite to effective instruction. In other words, school management affects instructlon. Bad management will cause poor instruction.

Ihere are five approaches to classroom management. They are Auhtoritarian Approach, Permissive Approach, Behaviour-Modification Approach, and Group Process Approach. The first two approaches should ideally be rejected since they are inhumane and unrealistic respectively. The remaining three approaches should be combined to make the Pluralistic Approach because none is perfect.

In teaching EFL the Pluralistic Approach can be done by first knowing your students, second creating good classroom climate, third making good preparation and fourth collaborating with colleagues especially other EFL teachers lnside or outside school. These four activities if done properly can generate effective classroom management which affects classroom instruction.

The Effective Classroom Interaction

Classroom interaction involves a teacher and his/her students.

When the Authoritarian system of classroom management was still prevailing, one way interaction was popular. The teacher was dominatlng the classroom, leaving the students mostly passive

When the students have gained more important roles, there hlas been a progress in the kind of classroom interaction. One way interaction has become two-way interaction, where the students have the same right as their teacher in asking questions and explaining things.

With the increasing need of SAL in TEFL, the classroom interaction is now directed more toward the students with the teacher functioning as a facilitator.

Byrne has classified interaction in the EFL classroom into two different approaches. The first approach which was often adopted by traditional teachers has typical characteristics : whole class, teacher controlled, and accuracy activities.

The second approach which is adopted by progressive teachers has guite the opposite characteristics than the first : pairs and groups, learner directed and fluency activities.

As a more progressive teacher you should be able to combine the two approaches into one-a Balanced Approach because you will probably need to use both ways in turn depending on what you teach.

Finally there are four areas of EFL interaction according to Byrne’s model. They are :

  1. Accuracy activities controlled by the teacher and done wlth rhe whole class. e.g. drills.

  2. Accuracy actlvities directed by the learners and done in pairs or occasionally in group. e.g. mini-dialogue practice.

Based on The book title TEFL
IV by Nurbahri



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