General Instructional Objectives

 

General Instructional Objectives

 


Teaching Aids

There are many kinds of teaching aids used by English teachers in teaching EFL. The following are the aids which you have to be familiar with.

A. Visual Aids.
A.1. Blackboard
Blackboard is available in almost every classroom. It is used in almost every language teaching. The teacher usually writes definition, words, or sentences, he is teaching on the blackboard. He can draw some pictures to help him teach effectively. The teacher should plan and use the blackboard skillfiully in order to teach the language effiectively.

A.2. Picture.
Picture are very useful and effective media in EFL teaching. It can be used for teaching, speaking, listening comprehension, structure, vocabulary and cultural contents etc. In order to be effective and increase the students’ interest, the pictures used should be clear, and large enough to be seen by the whole class. Pictures taken from magazines, calendars advertisement are recommended to be taken and used for teaching EFL.

A.3. Flashcards.
Flashcards are a set of cards, measuring about 30 by 25 cm, which contain pictures or words on one side and their meaning on the other. These cards can be used to teach structures, vocabulary, etc. The flashcars containing words can be used for teaching games in which groups of students are holding cards in order to form the desired structure.

A.4. Chalts.
Charts contain series of pictures in the form of simple (Irawing (stick figures). These charts are used for giving oral drills in using structures, vocaloulary and speaking. They can also be used to teach guided writing in vvhich students are exposed to series of pictures and told to write a story about these pictures.

A.5. Conversion Cards.
Conversion cards are set of cards containing signs such as +, -, and ? which can be used to drill the students in transforming one structure (pattern) into another structure. e.g., from positive statement into negative one.

A.6. Calendar.
Calendar, a set of days, date, week and months of the year, and holiday marked, is a practical aid for teaching English tenses.

A.7. Flannel Boards.
Flannel boards are visual aid made up a board covered with flannel (woolen material) on which some pictures can be attached. Because of the replaceable and moveable pictures flannel board can be used for many purposes in EFL teaching such as for teaching writing, structure, vocabulary etc.

A.8. Models.
Imitative object, like toys, are useful means for teaching vocabulary. Since students can touch the model, or remove them with their hands, model can make the students remember the things longer than what they are taught by using pictures. Some common models used in EFL teaching are model clock, and coins or bank notes.

A.9. Maps.
Maps which are usually applied in geography lesson are used in EFL teaching. The detail drawing of maps, indicating roads, streets, buildings, rivers, and bridges, etc. can be used to teach students how to show direction in speaking and writing lesson.

A. 10. Slides.
A slide is a single film mounted on a frame, which contains pictures of various kinds. Slides are projected by using slide projector on the screen. The slide is very effectively used for various skills in teaching EFL. Since any pictures can be filmed, the use of slides are very flexible. Modem slide projeclors are operated by using remote control.

A. 11 Film Strips.
Film strips are series of films projected on the screen by using a special projector. Since they contain related pictures, they can be used for teaching oral as well as writing skills. The individual picture can be shown on the screen as long as it is needed.

A. 12. OHP (Overhead Projector)
This instrurnent is widely used loday. The teacher can draw pictures or write anything he wants to teach on a plastic transparency which are then projected on the screen. This instrument can be used for teaching any skills desired, such as writing, speaking, vocabulary ctc. even dictation. Well planned materials presented through OHP will make the teaching more effective.

B. Audio Aids.
B.13. Tapes.
Tapes are very familiar instruments. When materials are well prepared or well recorded, the lesson will be more interesting and effiective. Tapes can be used to teach aural as well, oral lesson such as speaking, listening comprehension etc.

B.14. Language Laboratory.
The new development in the use of tape as an audio aid is language laboratory. It is a room equipped with hearing and speaking instrument. Students can listen to recorded materials as well as record their own voice. In this way language laboratory can be used for individual as well as group practice. The teacher then can teach different skills, sush as what he can do with the tape recorder.

C. Audio Visual Aids
C.15. Films.
Films which are widely known can serve as a very useful means of teaching EFL. There are some films which are produced maily for teaching English. If English teachers can obtain good films they will get good advantages of using these films, because films can provide a wide range of stimuli, increase students’ interest, help improve students’ listening as well as speaking skills.

C.16. Television.
TV is now used effectively by EFL teachers. The TV programs which are planned carefully can reach a wide range of audience. Some video-taped materials are now available in the market. When they are well prepared and selected carefully, it can give advantages to the teacher, like those given by film.


Media Theory

The English teachers are recommended to use instructional media. The reasons are the media they are going to use will motivate the students to learn, will increase their interest, and will widen the channel of communication between the teacher and the students, so that the teaching will be more communicative and effective.

In fact learning is the acquisition of skills and knowledge which are in fact the result of taking, the responses caused by stimuli into the students’ mind which create sensory impression. The task of the teacher is to provide various kinds of stimuli, which can be done by using media. Besides, media can also serve as a substitute for the things which are difficult to find.

From the point of view of students life, the experience two realities one school reality and outside school reality which is more varied and rich. Media can function as a means of providing both realities. In this way media can make the students more interested in their study.

However, it demands more attention and ability of the teacher to use them in order that their use becomes more effective. The effectiveness of using media is also determined by teacher’s attitudes towards media.

Instructional media has three characteristics. First is fixative characteristics which refers to their ability to record the information and event, and reserve then for futures reproduction. Second, manipulative property (characteristics) which refer to their ability to transform of an object or event in many ways. Third, distributive property which refer to their ability to transport any event through space to millions of audience so that they can view the event at the same time and form. These three properties gave advantages to English teachers, such as it is possible to show or demontrate something which without media the students cannot experience this thing.


Media Selection Before you select media for teaching EFL , you have to ask five questions namely:

  • Whether the attainment of objectives requires a particular media.

  • What media property will help achieve the objective.

  • What particular response from the students I require from the use of media.

  • How the class will likely respond to the media.

  • How to evaluate the effectiveness of the media.

According to Curzon, the teacher had better not use media if the media could not accelerate, intensify and consolidate the students behavioral changes. According to Gagle media could contribute effectively to the growth of specific learning capabilities. Kemp (1985) mentions five criteria for selecting media namely:

  • Appropriateness refers to the suitability of media with the teaching

  • Level of sophistication refers to the relevancy of media with the level of students.

  • Cost or the expenditure which should be considered by the teacher and compared with learning benefit anticipated.

  • Availability refers to whether the media are within reach. If they are not available the teacher should find the alternative.

  • Technical quality refers to the guality of media in perforning thier functior well.

Besides knowing the criteria you have to know detail charateristics of the media that you possibly select in the future.

  1. Computers can also be used to learn social science such as language. The advantages are that computer never gets tired can evaluate the students progress can accommodate many students control the leaming precess and functions with less error. Its limitations are they are expensive indiviuaIy learning is difficult to arange most program are in matematical science.

  2. Filmstrips and slides are used in EFL teaching. Their advantages are the individual pictures can be help long on the screen for a discussion, pictorial or graphic can be used along or in combination the size permits easy storage they are cheap and do not require dark room. The sequence of slides call be altered out not of filmstrips they are easily made. the limitation of filmstrip are that the sequence cannot be altered less altractive compared with film carmot be made easily in the school.

  3. Games and simulation is a simplified and operational model of a real life situation. Its characteristics are that is has rules structure and time limit. It enable students to take part in many vicarious events and roles. Its advantages are the students can seek problems it satisfied the students placing student in more realistic enviromnents can be coupled with the use of media and generate students interest. On the other hand its limitations are it often distort social situation, time consuming, and require only a few people.

  4. Films are of two kinds namely 8 rnm and 16 mm. The 8 mm films are easy to operate by teachers as well as by students individualy or in groups. Films used as instruction media have some advantages namely they can record events as they happen can be used to create animation of drawings and bring other nation and people on the screen. However they have limitation are films are expensive and are not always suitable for the subject taught.

  5. OHP is a projector operaled by using transparency on which the teacher writes or draws pictures which are projected on a screen. they have some advantages such as, because of its placement the teacher can have eye contact with the students while using the OHP, the OHP can be used in a bright room, and their materials can be produced easily by the teacher. The limitations are they need careful arrangement to avoid obstruction of the students sight, the limited number of OHP may cause some difficulties in scheduling their use.

  6. Pietures are two dimensional visual representation of persons, places or things on the forrn of photographs, sketches, eartoons, murals, or charts, graphs, and maps. As instructional media pictures have advantages such as they are cheap, gave the same experience to the students, their visual detail enable students to study complicated object, can by used to correct misconception, stimulate further studies and can fokus students attention The limittation of pictures are that the size and distance of the pictures can cause distortion, the lack of color limits the proper interpretation, and students do not always know how to read pictures.

  7. Tape recorders are electrical instruments with which a cassette containing recorded speech of native speakers is played. As a means of teaching EFL, tape recorder have their advantages and limitations. The advantages are they are widely available, can record events or people for later use, and their limitation are it is difficultt to locate the recorded item if it is in the midde of the cassette and due to the different systems it is somtime difficult to play one cassette with different reccord players.

  8. Television is an electrical device to transmit still in or moving images with accompanying sound over a wire or through space. The device provide the viewers with program broadcast from TV station Because of this competent, TV has been used as a means of teaching. The advantages of TV can provide common base of experience for all viewers, brings to classroom people, places and events, helps students to become more critical viewers, enable students to see what is happening at that time, it help overcome the problems of the lack of talented teachers, video tape helps the program to be recorded and reproduced. The limitations are that the teaching programs of TV are difficult to match with the school prograrns, detailed images are difficult for students to see in a large room, it makes the students inattentive, some teahers consider TV as a threat that it might replace thern.


The Technique of Producing Sample Media

Pictures can be drown in many ways. Before you draw pictures you have to consider the type of paper you are going to use, the size of the pictures and the type of pictures. In order that the pictures will last long you have to think of the way to protect the pictures from decaying. If you cannot draw pictures well you can copy and enlarge the pictures by using methods of sguares, slide projector or pantograph. To make the pictures clear use contrasting colors.

Flash cards are sets of cards containing pictures of action, things etc. The size is 25 x 30 cm. Behind the flash cards the names of the pictures or the letters are written in small letters. The pictures drawn are in the forms of stick figures, pictures in detail, or photographs cut out from a magazine.

Conversion cards are sel of small cards measuring 10 x 15 cm which + – ? signs used in transformation drill. A chart is a display board made from thick paper or cardboard. It contains related pictures usually in stick figures. Charts can also be used for calendars by providing slots for days, date and months.

Flannel boards are made from boards or plywood covered with flannel cloth on which some teaching materials in the form of cut out pictures pasted in the back with rough texture are placed. These materials are moveable and replaceable so that they can provide the students with various visual stimuli. Puppets can be made from different rnaterials among others from paper bags, from ball, from cardboard and cement. In using paper bags, you just draw a face, twist the two corners for ears, and held the bottom with rubber band on your wrist. In using balls, you draw faces, on the ball, make holes for the neck, and use stitched clothes for its dress. The cement plaster can be made into heads, make faces and paint them. A short piece of bamboo stuck to the heads can be their necks which are then covered with clothes for their dresses. The bamboo should be big enough for your finger. A figur cut out from a cardboard can be a puppet, by cutting hands into three section, and then join them with strings, and then using barnboo sticks for the body and hands to move them can make the conversation lively.

Clock face can be made from thick cardboard of 25 x 25 cm. The clock is draw on the board which is covered with white paper. The bour hand and the minute hand can be made from strong cardboard and painted black. The hands are fastened in the center of the clock by using paper fastener and small flat rings attached to it.


PLANNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEST

The Significance of English Tests

The reasons for giving test to the students among others are to motivate students, to reinforce their learning and to measure the student performance in language learning. Beside it can also be a feed-back to the teacher to improve the future process of teaching and learning. The teacher will be able to locate areas of difficulty the students are facing. According to Heaton (1988) there are four approaches in language testing namely

  1. essay translation approach according to which the forms of the tests ara essay writings translation and grammatical analysis.

  2. structural linguistic approach. which test student language skill separately, concentrating on the student mastery of phonology, grammar and vocabulary. These are tested by using sentences separated from the context.

  3. integrative approach which emphasize meaning and the total communicative effect of the language. The integrative characteristic is indicated by the use of cloze tests and dictation, which are assumed to measure different skills.

  4. communicative approach, this approach has similarity with the integrative approach, both approaches emphasize meaning in their test rather than structures and form. However, there differences between these two. Communicative approach is totally concerned with how a language is used for communication.

    According to Harris (1969) there are four purposes of language test.

    1. screening tests, used to determine the readness to join programs, such as an entrance examination used to select the students who are ready to study in a university.

    2. placement tests which serve to place students according their level of competence.

    3. diagnostic test which are used to diagnose the students’ strengths and weaknesses.

    4. aptitude test, to measure and to predict the student performance.

    5. achievement test used to measure the extent to which the students have achieved the objectives.

    6. evaluative tests which are used to evaluate the whole programs. This kind of tests are usually used in educational research.

    Viewed from the maker of the test there are two kinds. a) The teacher made test assumed to have content validity since is constructed on the basis of curriculum the students have learned. b) The standardized tests prepared by experts, and tried many times to improve their validity and reliability. They are used for wider population, who the test makers are not familiar with


Charactics of Good Tests
The characteristics of a good test are:

  1. valid

  2. reliable

  3. practical and

  4. discriminating

A test is said to be valid if it measure what to be measures. There are several types of validity namely

  1. Face validity which indicates that a test looks valid to other testers especially its appearance, composition, items, organization and contents.

  2. Content validity indicates that the test reflects what the students have learned or the contents of the curriculum.

  3. Empirical validity which shows that the results of the test have high correlation with the results of the valid criterion measure.

  4. Concurrent validity when the results of the test is correlated significantly with the present results of valid rating or test.

  5. Predictive validity when the results of the test are highly correlated with the results of later valid measurement.

  6. Construct validity is indicated by the test ability to measure specific characteristics in accordance with the theory of language behaviour or language learning.

Reliability. A test is said to be reliable if it can produce stable or consistent scores although the test is administered at different times. Reliability is a very important characteristic of a test a test is not valid unless it is reliable. There are some factors which affect the reliability of a test, namely the sample performance, the number of items, the administration of the test, the student motivation and other factors beyond the control of the tester (such as student sickness etc.).

There are several techniques of estimating the reliability of a test.

  1. By using test retest technique. A test is used twice and then the results are correlated to see the consistency of measuring.

  2. By using parallel forms of the same test. Both are administered and then the results are correlated. The coefficient of correlation will indicate the reliability of the test.

  3. Split-half technique with which a test is divided into two and then both are correlated using a particular formula. The result will indicate the whole reliability of a test.

Other characteristics of a good test is practicality which involves considering some factors when selecting the test, namely economy, ease of administration, and ease of interpretation. Economy involves considering whether the test will take a long time to administer and to score. Ease of administration involves the consideration of whether the test is easy or complicated to administer. ease of interpretation includes the consideration of the reliability, the validity and norms for appropriate reference group. Finally, the characteristic of a good test is discriminating which refers to the capacity of the test to discriminate among the testees (peserta ujian) performances that is differentiate the bright from the low candidates.


Table of Specification (Kisi-kisi Tes)

Before you write any test, the thing to do is make a kind of table of specification. It is a blue print of your test, in the form of table or matrix, which contains a sample of performance and types of tests you are going to use. The sample performance which are going to be tested are selected on the bases of the objectives of a particular instructional plan (such as lesson plan, etc.). The selection of the types of test depends on the objectives. There are two types of tests, oral and written test. The following step is to determine the number of item you are going to write, and their percentages. The number of item is decided on the basis of what is emphasized.

To write an achievement test some factors should be considered. The table of specification performances should include covered by a lesson unit and what have been learned by students in several meetings. The types of test selected are oriented to the types of sample performances mentioned in the lesson objectives and the number of items should be determined on the basis of time allotted to do the test.

In writing a final semester test, the first thing to consider is the semester program. The table of specification should contain wide variety of sample performances, selected on the basis of their priority, and the number of items should be based on the time allotment.

That is his English cannot be understood because of his serious mistakes in structure vocabulary and pronunciation. On the contrary, the student performance is given the score of 4 if he can express his opinion well, on his expression can be understood well with good grammar pronunciation (streis and intonation). So the components must be clearly stated such as grammar vocabulary, pronunciation and the organization of ideas. The ecah component should be discribed in term of its its characteristic. For example, students grammar is still full of mistakes, his pronounciation is good the contents is in accordance with his topic, his vocabulary is used correctly.

For objectives scores, the measurement should be repeated many times to reduce their subjectivity. It would be better if the teacher uses more than one rater in scoring the performance. The scores of each rater (penilai) are combined and then averaged. The result is the score he should use.

Table
Before you begin to write a particular test examine the previous table of specification, which contains specific information of the number of items you are going to write. After that you still to summarize these items what skills are going to be measured, the technique of measurement used, the aspects to be measured, kinds of items, and the technique of scoring. These are included in one table with five column. see the following examples.


Writing Good Test and Interpreting The Test Rusults

Language performance can be evaluated by using objective and subjective types of test. Before writing any test. the first using to do is to make a table of specification which summarize what type of sill is going to be measure the technique of measurement, aspect to be measured, kinds of iteg and method of scoring. After this, and considering the previous table of specification final table can be made. In accordance with the technical guide of the implementation of 1994 English curriculum this table should contain language skill to be evaluated, themes, information about this theme class, indicator showing the desired achievement, number of item the form of the item and the item number. In this unit some techniques of writing tests have been presented such as how to write objective tests, comprehension tests, listening comprehension tests, reading comprehension tests, writing and speaking tests, and vocabulary tests.

Finally the statistical techniques of interpreting test scores have been discussed these include making table of frequency and ranking the scores, to get meaningful interpretation of the scores. Besides some formulas are presented to find the mean of the scores and the standard deviation of the scores. The concept of mode and median, as well as the concept of normal curve have also be presented which can be used to compare individual scores with the score of students as a whole.


SPECIAL TECHNIQUES FOR PROBLEM CLASSES

How to Deal with Weak Classes

Up to now you have learned something about the techniques of dealing with weak classes or less able classes. Less able classes consist of students who are weak in productive aspect. To cope with this kind of class three principles are used to modify the techniques and activities. These principles are: a) limitation of aims, b) simplification of materials and c) tighter control over learner production.

Limitation of aims can be carried out by concentrating on perceptive skills in teaching English to the students. This means understanding is more emphasized rather than producing a language. Three techniques are used namely

  1. questions and answer in the mother tangue (Indonesian)

  2. question in the foreign language and answers in the mother tongue

  3. completion of a table of information from reading or listening

As for the simplification of materials you can teach your students to understand only. For teaching structure especially the new one, the students are taught not to produce it but hear it and respond to it, because it will take time for the weak learner to understand its form and meaning. Besides this technique, students are taught the new structure with one verb only.

To carry out the technique of tighter control you can use simple presentation and controlled exercise. Besides this, you can also use phase out technique namely by erasing some parts of dialogue which should be memorized by the students.


How to Deal with Mixed Ability Classes

So far you have learned that mixed ability class is a class which contain at least three of their categories of very able, able, less able students. To deal with group the teacher should be able to organize the groups that are representative of different ability levels or mixed.

Dictation is useful for mixed ability class because it can provide the students with various activities. The very able students can write the whole text dictated, whereas the able students are given a text, with some missing words. The less able students are given a multiple choice.

Reading can be taught to the students by using work sheet of different types. The very able students are given difficult questions whereas the able and the less able students are given multiple choice questions.

Writing exercises of free composition. Writing a letter based on the text for mixed ability groups is given by using some particular techniques. For group A (the very able students) an exercise of writing a letter based on certain information is given, whereas for group B – the students are given a task to write a straight forward letter, after the teacher discuss the contains with the students. For group C (less able students) the exercise is in the form of guided composition on the form of substitution tables, or sentence completion.

In teaching speaking to the group of mixed ability, the use of dialogues or small drama recommeded.

In this unit you have learned some terms such as:
Streaming
non streaming
mixed ability
work card
sheet card
guided composition


How to Deal with Large Classes
A large class is a class of 30 or more students. A large class usually create management and organization problems. To deal with this large class some techniques and activities are suggested. Those are:

  1. Reorganizing the teaching room to allow sufficient space for activities such as drama, role play etc.

  2. Pair-work, students are paired with each other and told to work in pair

  3. Group work – students are grouped and told to finish a particular task together

  4. Class section. Class is modified for example it is devided into two so that the teacher can attend to each from time to time

  5. Team teaching. The teacher cooperates with his colleague in teaching the large class.


How to Deal with Classroom Physical Condition Problems


So far you have learned the problems of classroom physical conditions. These include the problem of

  1. brightness

  2. temperature

  3. accoustics

  4. lines of vision

  5. layout of the desk

  6. the possibility of moving the furniture

  7. the significance of other furniture

  8. a storage

  9. facilities for displaying pictures,

You have also learned how to overcome these problems. Some suggestions on how to overcome these problems have also been presented. The most important point is that you have to do your best to implement these suggestions when you teach your students.
Some words which you have to remember are:
brightnes
acoustics feature
lines of vision
patterns
echo
pair work
group work
furniture
buletin board
black board
facial expressions
display

Based on The book title TEFL IV by Nurbahri

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